دراسات

شيعة العراق الهوية والوطنية

1. ??? ?? ????? ?????? ??????:

??? ?? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ???? ???? (?) ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ???? ???? (?)? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ??? ????????? ?? ??????(1) ???? ???????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ?? ??? ?????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ?? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ???? ????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???????. ????????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ??? ?????. ?? ???? ?? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??????? ??????? ????????? (3).

??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ???????? ??? ?? ????? ?????? ????????? ??? 1917? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ????? ??????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????????? ????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????.

???? ???? ??? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?????(3). ????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ?????? ???????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ??? 1704?. ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ????????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? (?? ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????)(4).

??????? ??? ?????? ????????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ????? (??? ??? ??????? ????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ???? 1853- 1857?)(5). ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ???? ???? (1869- 1872?) ?????? ????? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????? ??????)(6). ??? ????? ???? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ??????? ???? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?? ??????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ???????.

??? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ????????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? (????? ????? ??????? ?? ???? -?? ?????? ??????- ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ???????)(7). ?? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ??(8). ???? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ???????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??????)(9). ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ??? ????? (?? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??????)(10). ??? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??? ?????? (??? ???? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ???? ??????... ???????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???)(11).

???? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ?????? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ???????? ???. ??? ????? ??????? ????????? ?????? ??? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????. ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ????????)(12). ???? ????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???????? ??? 1798? ?? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????. ??? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ???? ???? ?? ???????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ???)(13) ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??? 1798?? ???? ????? ???? ????? (?? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?? ???? - ??? 1803?- ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ??????)(14) ???? ??? ???????. ???????? ??? ??? ???????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ???? ??????? ????.

???? ?????? ????? ????? ??? 1743? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ??? ????????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ???????? ??? ????????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ???? ???????)(15). ????? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ??? (?) ?? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???????? ????????? ?????? ????? ???? ???????)(16). ????? ????? ??? ??? ??? ???????. ??????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? 1745?. ???? ??? ?????? ?? ??? 1743? ???? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????.

?????? ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ??????? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???)(17). ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ?????. ???? ???? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????? ??? 1831? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ??????)(18). ??? ???? ???? ?? ?? ??? ????? ????? ????? (?????? ??????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ??? ?????)(19). ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??????)(20). ????? ?? ???? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???? ??????? ?? ????.

??? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ???????. ???? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ?? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??? ??? ??? ???? ??? ????... ?? ??? ???? ????... ????? ??? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ?? ??????)(21). ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????.

2. ????? ????? ?? ??????? ?? ????????

?????? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ?????? ?????????? ???????????? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??(???????) ???? ?? ?????? ?? ????????? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ?? ??????? ?? ????. ???????? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? (??? ????? ???? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ????????? ???? ????????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? -??????? ???? ?? ?????-)(22).

???? ????? ???? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ????(23). ????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? (????? ?????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??? ???????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ?????.. ?? ????)(24). ?????? ?? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ?? ?? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ????? ???? ?????? ??? 1914?. ??? ??? ???? ???????? ???? ?? ??????? ????? ????? ???????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??????.

????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????? ??? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????????? ??? (???? ???? ???????? ?????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ??????? ??? ?????????.. ???? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????????)(25).

???? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ??? 1800? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???????? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ???????? (??????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ?? ?????? ????????? ???? ??? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????... ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ????????)(26).

????? ??? ????????? ???? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ??????? ?? ??????? ??? ??? ???????? ????? ????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ???? ?????? ????????? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ????? ?????? ??????? (????? ??????? ????????? ??? ????? 1908? ????? ??? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ?? ???? ????????? ????? ??? ?????? ??? ??????????)(27).

????? ??? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? (??? ???? ???? ??? ?????) ???????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????? (?? ??????? ???????) ??? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ??????? ???????? ???????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ???? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ?? ??? ????? ???? ???????? ???? ???????? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ?? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ???????? ??????? ????? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ????? ??????? ??? ?????? ????? ???????(28). ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????????.

3. ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ????????

?????? ???????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ?????? ????? ?????? ????????? ????????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???????. ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????????. ?????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ??? ??? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?? ???? (?? ??? 1850?) ???? ????? ???????? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ???? ????? ??????? (??? ?????? ???? ???????? ???????? ????????? ????????? ??? ??? ???????? ?? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ????)(29). ??? ????? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ???? ?? ?????(30).

????? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ?? ??? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ??????? ????????? ?? ???? ????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ??????(31). ????? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????????? ???? ?? ?????? ????? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ?????? ???? ??? ???????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ???? ?????. ???? ???? ??????? ???????? ??? ?????? ??????? ?????? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ???? ??? ???? ????????(32) ????? ???? ???? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ????? (???????) ???? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ?????????? ??? ???(33).

?????? ??????? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ???????? ????????? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ???????? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??? ????? ??????? ???? ?????? ??????? ???????? ???? ????? ??? ???? ???? ????? ??????????(34). ??? ????? ??? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ????????? ?? ????????? ???????? ????????? ????? ????? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ????? ????????? ??????? ?????? ?????????.

?????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ?? ????? ??? ?? ????? ???? ???? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? (????? ?????) ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ???? ???? ???? ???????? ????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ????? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ????????? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ???? ????? ????? ????????? ??? ????? ???? ???? ????????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????-???? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ???? ??????? ?? ?? ????? ?????? ??????.

????? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ?? (??????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ???? ???? ?????? ????????)(35). ???? ?? ???? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ??? ??? ?? ??? ??????? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ???????? ??? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ??? ????? ????... ???? ??? ???? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ?? ????? ????? ????????(36). ???? ???????? ?? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ????????? ?????? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ??????? ?????? ????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?????? ?????? ???? ???? ?????? ?? ????? ?????? ?? ????? ???????(37).

???????? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ??????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ?? ?????? ??????? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ?? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ??????? ???????? ??? ??????? ??? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ???? (??? ???? ?? ???????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ????????(38).

??? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ????? ?? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ?????? ?? ???? ?? ??????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????. ???? ????? ??????? ?? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ?? ????????? ???? ???? ?? ????? ????? ?????????? ?????? 30/11/1918 ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ?????? ???????? ?????? ???? ????? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ???:

1- ?? ?????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ??? ??????? ?????????? ???? ?? ?????? ???????? ?????? ?????? ??? ???????

2- ?? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ?? ???? ???? ?????? ???? ??? ?????? ????????

3- ?? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ?? ??? ??????(39).

?? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ????????? ??? ???? ????? ??????? ??? ????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ????? ????????? ???????? ??? ????? ??? ?????? ?? ??? ????? ??? ??? ????? ???????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ????? ?????.

???? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ???????? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ??? ???? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ??? ??????? ?????? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ?? ???? ????? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ??? ?? ?? ????????? ????? ????? ????? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ????????? ?? ????. ?? ?? ????? ????? ?? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ??? ????? ???? ?? ???? ???????? ????? ????? ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?????? ????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ????? ????? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ?????? ???? ????? ??? ?????? ?????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ???????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ?? ??????? ???????? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????.

???? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ???????? ???????? ????? ???? ??? ????? ??????? ???????? ??????? ?????? ??? ?????? ?????????? ????? ?????? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ???? ??????- ??????? ?? ?????? ??? (??? ??????? ???????? ??????? ??? 11????? ????? ??? 1919? ???? ?????? ???? ??????? ???...???? ?? ??? ?? 8????? ?????? ??????? ????????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????????? ?????? ?? ???? ??????? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ????? ??? ????? ??? ????? ?????)(40). ??? ?? ??? ??? ???? ????? ???? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ???? ??? ???? ??? ?????? ????? ????? ?????? ????? ??? ???? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ????????? - ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?? ?????? ?? ?? ???? ??????(41).

??? ????? ??????? ??????? ????????? ?? ????? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ???????? ???? ?? ???? ?? ?????? ?????? ???? ??? ????? ???? ????? ?? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????????? ??? ?????? ?? ????? ??????. ???? ?? ??????? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ??? ?? ????? ????? ???? ??????? ???????? ??????? ???????? ????? ?? ????? ???? ??? ?????? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ???????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ????????? ??? ?? ?????? ???? ??????? ???????? ?? ??? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?? ?????? ?????????(42) ?????? ???? ???? ?? ??? ???????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????. ??? ???? ???? ????? ????? ????? ?? ??? ????? ?? ???? ???????.

???? ???? ????? ?????? ??????? ???? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ????????? ???????? ?????? ??? ?? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ???? ??????? ??? ?????? ??? ? ??? (?? ??? ?? ?????? ????? ??? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ??? ????????? ?? ?????? ??? ??????? ?? ?????? ??? ????? ????? ??????...?? ???? ?? ???? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????) - ??? ???? ?? ??? ??? ????? ??? ?. ?????? ??(??????)- ?????? ??????? ????? ???? ???????? ??????? ?????)(43).

?? ????? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ????? ?????? ???? ????? ??????? ??????? ?????? ??????? ????? ????? ???? ???? ??? ??????? ???? ???? ?????? ??? ???? (?? ????? ??? ????? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ?????? ????? ???? ??????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?? ??? ???? ???? ???? ????? ?????? ?? ?????? ??? ??? ???? ???? ?? ?????(44). ???? ??? ????? ?? ?????? ?????? ?????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ??? ??? ?? ????? ???? ??? ??? ???????? ???? ??????? ?????? ?? ?????? ???????? ???? ????? ???? ????? ??????? ???????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ????? ????? ???????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? (???? ??????? ?????? ????? ???? ????? ???? ?????? ?????? ????? ?? ??? ????(45).

??? ???? ????? ?? ????? ??? ??????? ???????? ????? ???? ??????? ??? ??? ?? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ????? ???? ????? ????? ?????? (?? ???? ?????? ??????? ????? ?? ????? ?????? ??? ???? ?????? ????? ????? ??????? ?????? ??? ???? ???? ?? ??? ????? ????? ???? ??? ?? ???? ?????? ????? ??????).

..........................................???????:1. ?????? ???? ?????? ??????? ?????????? ???????? ??????? ?59? ?1.2. ?. ?? ?61.3. ???????? ?????? ????? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?158.4. ?. ?? ?158.5. ??????? ????? ???? ??????? ?45.6. ?. ?? ?45.7. ?. ?? ?24.8. ????? ??????? ??? ??? ?????? ?????? ??? ???? ??????? ??????? ????? ??????? ???? ???? ??? ????? ????? ?????? ??????? ??????? ???? ???? ??????? (? 1882?) ????? ??? ?? ???????? ????????? ??????? ??? ????? ??? ?? ????? ?? ????? ????? ?????? (388??) ????? ???? ???? ????? ???? ????? ???????? ????? ??? ??????? ???? ?????? ????????? ??? (827??) ??????? ???? ?? ????? ??? ???? ??? ??????? ?? ??? ?????? ???? ????? (?622??) ??? ??? ???? ???? ???????:?????? ????? ?????? ?????????? ???? ???? ??? ?????????? ????? ????? ??? ??? ?? ??? ????? ?????? ??? ??????? ??????? ???????? ? [??????? ???????? ?? ??????? ?274-277]. ???? ??? ????? ???? ??? ????? ?? ????? [??????? ?61? ?1].9. ???????? ?????? ?. ?? ?256.10. ?????? ????? ?? ???? ????? ??????? ?238.11. ?. ?? ?198.12. ??????? ????? ?39.13. ?. ?? ?39.14. ????????? ?? ?? ?276.15. ??????? ?. ???? ????? ???????? ?? ????? ??????? ?79? ?1.16. ?.?? ?1? ?133.17. ??????? ?. ?? ?39.18. ???????? ?. ?? ?339.19? ??????? ?.?? ?2? ?109.20. ?. ?? ?1? ?108.21. ?. ?? ?2? ?120.22. ????? ?. ?? ?32.23. ??????? ?.?? ?3? ?198.24. ?????? ?. ?? ?32.25. ??????? ?. ?? ?3? ?90-91.26. ?? ???? ???? ?? ????? ?????? ??????? ?48.27. ?.?? ?92.28. ???? ???? ?????

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